Starting in the late 2000s, Colleen Reichmuth and Ole Larsen made a number of visits to Six Flags Discovery Kingdom in Vallejo, Calif., to hear a walrus make some sound. The male Pacific walrus, called Sivuqaq, was approaching sexual maturity, which indicated he may soon spout the signature din that male walruses make in reproducing season.Dr. Reichmuth, a research researcher at the University of California, Santa Cruz, was driving a short method to see Sivuqaq. But Dr. Larsen, a bio-acoustician at the University of Southern Denmark, was traveling a long way from, well, Denmark.Dr. Reichmuth and Dr. Larsen had actually come specifically to hear Sivuqaq give off a male walruss characteristic breeding noises: knocks, metallic gong-like beats and piercing whistles. Sivuqaq, who stole the screen during appearances in “50 First Dates” with Adam Sandler and Drew Barrymore, was uncooperative. Some days, he clapped his fore flippers together countless times in a row while undersea, persistently.”At very first it was distracting,” Dr. Reichmuth stated. She and Dr. Larsen had actually come for gongs and knocks, not claps. They realized the incessant claps were worth studying, and although it has taken a number of years, they released their observations and recordings of the clapping habits on Wednesday in the journal Royal Society Open Science. To the scientists understanding, there is no documentation of wild walruses captured in a comparable act of applause.Dr. When he was a pup, Reichmuth first fulfilled Sivuqaq. The walrus was reduced to Six Flags in 1994, when he was recuperated from a Native Alaskan subsistence program. He shares the Yupik name for what is now the city of Gambell, Alaska. In captivity, Sivuqaqs life was documented much more extensively than that of any wild walrus. He passed away at age 21 in 2015, a few years after this research was completed.Dr. Reichmuth decided to study walruses after she heard a recording of a wild male walrus. The creatures noises seemed straight out of “Stomp,” the infamously percussive off-Broadway show. “It resembled a racket on a building and construction website,” she said. “With a pile chauffeur, or periodically someone dropping a big sheet of metal off a building.”When Sivuqaq matured, Dr. Reichmuth coordinated with Dr. Larsen to measure the walruss noise production throughout rut, the period when male walruses feel the desire to breed. Scientists still do not understand exactly how walruses make their knocks and gongs. One hypothesis is that knocks originated from within the walruss body and gongs may be produced by a male walruss air sacs, Dr. Reichmuth said.The researchers set up hydrophones in Sivuqaqs tank and filmed the walrus clapping with a high-speed black-and-white video camera. The video exposes the walrus clapping his flippers asymmetrically. Dr. Reichmuth compares it to hitting a catchers mitt; by angling one flipper to move like a blade in the water, the walrus reduces resistance and can strike at a much greater speed. When the scientists slowed down the frames, they spied a bright splotch forming in between the flippers post-clap: cavitation bubbles, which produce the noise you make when you split your knuckles.”Walruses have the ability to clap undersea so hard that the water in between their flippers vaporizes into a cloud of bubbles, which then collapse onto themselves to produce an incredibly loud sound,” David Hocking, a senior manager of vertebrate zoology at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, who was not involved with the research study, composed in an e-mail. Dr. Hocking observed comparable clapping habits in wild gray seals throughout reproducing season, and hypothesized that it was a demonstration of strength and fitness to rivals and potential mates.The authors of the new research study believe Sivuqaqs clapping has a similar function, due to the fact that the walrus started clapping as he approached sexual maturity and the habits was typically accompanied with a visible erection. “I believe its tough for these animals to suppress,” Dr. Reichmuth stated, referring to Sivuqaqs cacophonous drive to breed.Sivuqaq clapped in an unshakable pace: 1.2 seconds between claps, the same pace as the knock sounds he gave off. And his claps were loud; perceptible to people standing lawns away from the four-inch-thick glass walls of his tank. Sivuqaqs sounds never ever reached the complete intricacy of wild walruses breeding displays, which can consist of long patterned series of pulses varying in length and punctuated by bell-like noises, according to a 2003 research study. In Dr. Reichmuths eyes, the captive walrus produced tune parts but could not produce intricate tunes if denied the ability to listen to and find out from other adult walruses sounds.With an information set of one walrus, its difficult to know whether wild walruses clap, too. “Is this something that a person male did? Is it a brand-new way of producing a functionally comparable habits?” asked Eduardo J. Fernandez, an animal welfare scientist at the University of Adelaide, Australia, who was not involved with the research study. “For this walrus, it appears to be associated with a reproducing screen,” he said.Dr. Reichmuth and Dr. Larsen are dealing with a paper evaluating the biological systems behind Sivuqaqs other, more familiar breeding sounds– what they originally pertained to Six Flags to study.
The male Pacific walrus, named Sivuqaq, was approaching sexual maturity, which suggested he may quickly spout the signature din that male walruses make in reproducing season.Dr. Reichmuth chose to study walruses after she heard a recording of a wild male walrus.”When Sivuqaq came of age, Dr. Reichmuth teamed up with Dr. Larsen to measure the walruss noise production throughout rut, the period when male walruses feel the desire to breed. One hypothesis is that knocks come from within the walruss body and gongs may be produced by a male walruss air sacs, Dr. Reichmuth said.The researchers installed hydrophones in Sivuqaqs tank and shot the walrus clapping with a high-speed black-and-white video cam. In Dr. Reichmuths eyes, the captive walrus produced tune elements however might not produce intricate tunes if rejected the ability to listen to and find out from other adult walruses sounds.With a data set of one walrus, its difficult to understand whether wild walruses clap, too.