A higher consumption of flavonoid-rich foods such as berries, apples, tea, and red white wine is associated with a clinically pertinent reduction in high blood pressure levels, an association that is partly explained by germs in an individuals gut microbiome, new research recommends.
In a population-based study of more than 900 individuals, those with the greatest consumption of flavonoid-containing foods had considerably lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, in addition to greater gut microbial diversity, compared to those with the most affordable intakes.
Up to 15% of this observed association was explained by the gut microbiome, suggesting that these microbes play an essential role in metabolizing flavonoids to enhance their cardioprotective impacts, according to the scientists.
The study was released online today in the journal Hypertension.
Dr Aedin Cassidy
The researchers assessed participants food consumption, gut microbiome, and high blood pressure levels together with other clinical and molecular phenotyping at regular follow-up assessments.
” Unlike many other food constituents, flavonoids are predominantly metabolized in the gut, recommending that the gut microbiome might be more crucial in boosting their biological activity than for other things we consume,” Cassidy said.
” There is mounting proof from population-based research studies and medical trials that a higher intake of flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods can enhance heart health, however for the first time, we offer information highlighting the essential role of the gut microbiome in discussing the association in between such foods and blood pressure,” she noted. “This is among the very first research studies to address this.”
For this analysis, Cassidy and her group sought to assess to what degree the structure of the gut microbiome might discuss the association of regular flavonoid and flavonoid-rich food consumption with diastolic and systolic high blood pressure in a community-based sample of 904 individuals aged 25-82 years from Germanys PopGen biobank.
” We understand what we eat plays a vital function in shaping our gut microbiome, but little is understood about the relative significance of plant foods and specific constituents called flavonoids,” lead researcher Aedin Cassidy, PhD, chair and teacher in nutrition and medicine at the Institute for Global Food Security, Queens University, Belfast, Northern Ireland, informed theheart.org|Medscape Cardiology.
Participants intake of flavonoid-rich foods during the previous year was calculated from a self-reported food survey detailing the frequency and amount consumed of 112 foods, and flavonoid values were appointed to foods according to United States Department of Agriculture data on flavonoid material in food.
Participants gut microbiome was examined by fecal bacterial DNA extracted from stool samples.
After an overnight quickly, participants blood pressure levels were determined 3 times in 3-minute intervals after a preliminary 5-minute rest period. Researchers likewise gathered individuals diet plan and way of life information.
Analysis of the information showed the following:
” A much better understanding of the extremely individual variability of flavonoid metabolic process might effectively describe why some individuals have higher cardiovascular defense advantages from flavonoid-rich foods than others.”
” Incorporating flavonoid rich foods into the diet plan can have clinically relevant reductions in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and a healthy gut microbiome is very important to break down flavonoids to a more cardioprotective type,” she stated.
Eating 1.5 servings of berries per day (about 1 cup) was related to a 4.1 mm Hg decrease in systolic BP; 12% of this association was explained by gut microbiome factors
Consuming 3 glasses of red wine each week was related to a 3.7 mm Hg decrease in systolic BP; 15% of this association was described by the gut microbiome.
” These blood pressure-lowering impacts are possible with easy modifications to the everyday diet plan,” Cassidy stated.
” Our findings indicate future trials should look at individuals according to metabolic profile in order to more properly study the roles of metabolism and the gut microbiome in managing the effects of flavonoids on high blood pressure,” stated Cassidy.
” The information are interesting,” David Jenkins, MD, PhD, DSc, professor of medicine and nutrition at the University of Toronto, Canada, told theheart.org|Medscape Cardiology.
Dr David Jenkins
Hypertension. Released online August 23, 2021. Complete text
” Grapes and berries high in polyphenols might have many health advantages as antioxidants and in a recent study have been shown to minimize cardiovascular mortality. The change in persistent microflora is likewise of interest as this will change with increased fruit and veggie consumption,” he stated.
” Based on these AHA dietary recommendations, a wide range of plant foods will promote usage of lots of flavonoids that have actually shown CVD benefits, such as decreasing systolic blood pressure as reported by the authors, in addition to promoting healthy endothelial function and having anti-thrombotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory impacts,” she stated in e-mail.
” The AHA recommends a healthy dietary pattern that emphasizes a variety of plant foods consisting of fruits, vegetables, entire grains, seeds, legumes, and nuts and is low in sodium, saturated fat, and added sugars. Lean protein foods, consisting of plant protein foods, are advised, and red meat needs to be limited. If alcohol is consumed it must be done in small amounts,” Kris-Etherton stated.
The research study was moneyed by grants from the German Research Foundation and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Cassidy and Jenkins have actually disclosed no relevant monetary relationships. Kris-Etherton is a spokesperson for the AHA.
Maybe one word of caution, Jenkins added: “Alcohol has been found to increase high blood pressure and the danger of stroke. Most likely the beneficial results as seen here were when white wine is consumed in small amounts.”
” The AHA suggests a healthy dietary pattern that highlights a range of plant foods consisting of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, seeds, vegetables, and nuts and is low in salt, hydrogenated fat, and included sugars. Lean protein foods, consisting of plant protein foods, are suggested, and red meat ought to be restricted. If alcohol is consumed it should be done in moderation,” Kris-Etherton stated.
The research study was moneyed by grants from the German Research Foundation and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Cassidy and Jenkins have actually disclosed no appropriate financial relationships.
” This advised dietary pattern will have other cardiovascular health benefits, such as reducing LDL cholesterol, due to its really healthy nutrient profile. The amazing new finding reported by Cassidy et al is that the results of dietary flavonoids on decreasing systolic high blood pressure are modulated by the gut microbiome,” Kris-Etherton stated.
” Berries and red white wine appear to be connected with lower systolic blood pressures. Lower high blood pressure have actually been found in general in people who take in more plant-based diets, especially those high in vegetables and fruits,” noted Jenkins, who was not included with this research study.
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” Further research requires to be done to validate these findings and to determine how different foods impact specific gut bacteria that benefit cardiovascular health.”
The study by Cassidy and associates supports the dietary recommendations from the American Heart Association (AHA) for heart health, Penny M. Kris-Etherton, PhD, RDN, professor of nutritional sciences, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, and chair, AHA Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health, told theheart.org|Medscape Cardiology.