Individuals with FTD may also have uncommon cravings and consuming patterns, and experience obsessions like demanding to view the very same motion picture over and over, adds Dr. Scharre. Depending on the kind of FTD, other signs may consist of problems with speaking, writing, and understanding skills, and muscle weakness and atrophy. Unlike with Alzheimers, amnesia is not a major symptom.For more details: The Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration 5. Normal pressure hydrocephalusWhat it is: Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is one kind of dementia that can be successfully dealt with, states Dr. Scharre. It takes place when excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulates in the brains ventricles (a network of cavities). As the ventricles expand, they can interfere with neighboring brain tissue. “Maybe you hit your head or have a little bit of blood in the back fluid from injury or an infection, then it sort of gums up the drain, so its not draining too. So, youre overproducing fluid and not draining it quickly enough,” Dr. Scharre explains. NPH can be treated with the surgical insertion of a shunt, which drains pipes the excess fluid from the brain into the abdomen. “The physician will initially test it by taking a little fluid out to see if it helps, and if it works, theyll set up surgical treatment to put in the shunt,” Caccappolo explains. Its approximated that 700,000 Americans have NPH, though just 1 in 5 get a proper diagnosis, given that it is frequently mistaken for Alzheimers, Parkinsons, or “regular aging,” per the Hydrocephalus Association.Symptoms: NPH is in some cases identified after a head injury, a tumor, meningitis, or other trauma, but in a lot of cases the causes in unknown. It has three primary symptoms, which can appear entirely or at various stages of the disease: urinary incontinence, problem with balance and walking, and cognitive problems consisting of short-term amnesia, state of mind changes, and difficulty making choices and carrying out tasks.For more info: Hydrocephalus Association 6. Huntingtons diseaseWhat it is: About 40,000 Americans have this progressive, acquired brain condition, gave through a mutation on the huntingtin gene, which mostly affects the area of the brain that plays a crucial function in behavior, movement, and state of mind. Symptoms usually establish between the ages of 30 and 50, however they can appear earlier or later. “If a moms and dad has Huntingtons, the child has a 50-50 opportunity of establishing it, too,” Caccappolo explains. (Pre-genetic testing can be used in combination with IVF for grownups with the gene who desire to have kids without passing on the illness.) Signs: Early symptoms of Huntingtons consist of problems planning, keeping in mind, and remaining on task, as well as physical difficulties, like being unable to hold a cup without dropping it. As the illness progresses, symptoms consist of uncontrolled motions (called chorea), slurred speech, and irregular twisting of the arm, knee, or foot. In the later stages, they may experience considerable amnesia similar to what is seen in Alzheimers, states Dr. Scharre.For more info: Huntingtons Disease Society 7. Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseaseWhat it is: An exceptionally uncommon brain condition that strikes just about 350 Americans each year, CJD is a fast-moving, deadly illness brought on by a transmittable, misfolded prion protein in the brain. The illness can be inherited or– very hardly ever– it can be acquired by eating meat from infected animals (the “mad cow” crisis in the 1990s in the U.K. was one noteworthy breakout of the disease) or by having a medical treatment in which infected tissue, such as a cornea, is implanted. There is no recognized cause. Symptoms: The greatest red flag with CJD is how rapidly it advances. “CJD comes on very rapidly and has a rapid decrease,” says Caccappolo. “Often by the time a patient is identified with it, theyre already in the medical facility.” Symptoms can consist of anxiety, mood swings, agitation, and confusion, in addition to difficulties with memory and judgment. As the illness rapidly affects the brain, the client can have problem strolling and experience muscle twitches, uncontrolled movements, loss of sight, and hallucinations.For more info: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 8. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndromeWhat it is: Wernicke-Korsakoff (WK) syndrome is a degenerative brain illness triggered by a shortage of thiamine (vitamin B1). Most of the times, the vitamin deficiency is related to long-lasting alcoholism, however extreme weight reduction due to anorexia or other health problems can also result in exceptionally low levels. When the disease is in its earliest phase, its called Wernike; if its left without treatment, Wernike can result in chronic, irreparable Korsakoff syndrome, which sadly happens in about 80 to 90% of cases.Symptoms: People with WK syndrome experience memory loss, vision problems, lack of concentration, and disorientation. They likewise experience ataxia, the inability to coordinate voluntary movement. As the disease progresses, they experience memory loss and the failure to keep info. They are often able to maintain a socially proper conversation as if absolutely nothing is incorrect, though Caccappolo explains one typical coping mechanism: “One hallmark of the illness is confabulation– they cant remember particular things from their past, so they complete the gaps by making things up.” For more information: National Organization of Rare Disorders
“Dementia implies that the brain isnt working well– there are treatable types, reversible types, and types we have actually restricted alternatives for,” he says.Finding out precisely which type of dementia you or your enjoyed one has may be frightening, but its essential to determine the condition as early as possible, states Rebecca Edelmayer, Ph.D., senior director of scientific engagement for the Alzheimers Association. To evaluate which type of dementia (or mix of dementias) a client has, a doctor will typically gather info from both the client and their family about their collection of symptoms, when they started appearing, and how theyre advancing, states Elise Caccappolo, Ph.D., associate professor of neuropsychology at Columbia University Irving Medical. Even with non-reversible, degenerative types of dementia, there is factor for hope: “We are learning so much about Alzheimers and all types of dementia,” says Edelmayer. Alzheimers diseaseWhat it is: The most common cause of dementia, Alzheimers affects an estimated 60 to 80% of all people with dementia. Vascular dementiaWhat it is: Vascular dementia is considered the second most typical type of dementia, accounting for about 15 to 20% of cases in North America and Europe (the numbers are somewhat higher in Asia).
Marisa Cohen is a Contributing Editor in the Hearst Health Newsroom, who has covered health, nutrition, parenting, and the arts for lots of publications and web websites over the past two decades.
For the majority of people, Alzheimers disease is the first condition they think about when they hear the word dementia– and for understandable factors. The degenerative brain disease is the most typical kind of dementia, an umbrella term for loss of memory, language, and other thinking abilities that end up being severe sufficient to disrupt a persons life. However, Alzheimers is far from the only one.There are literally numerous various conditions that can trigger memory loss, confusion, character changes, and issues with walking, speaking, and comprehension, states Douglas Scharre, M.D., director of the department of cognitive neurology at Ohio State Wexner Medical Center. “Dementia implies that the brain isnt working well– there are treatable types, reversible types, and types we have actually restricted options for,” he says.Finding out precisely which kind of dementia you or your loved one has may be frightening, however its crucial to identify the condition as early as possible, says Rebecca Edelmayer, Ph.D., senior director of clinical engagement for the Alzheimers Association. Early detection and an accurate medical diagnosis can help a person make way of life changes to potentially slow the rate of decline, make vital choices about their healthcare, and even open the opportunity of taking part in scientific trials for brand-new treatments. To evaluate which type of dementia (or mix of dementias) a client has, a medical professional will typically collect information from both the patient and their household about their collection of signs, when they started appearing, and how theyre progressing, states Elise Caccappolo, Ph.D., associate teacher of neuropsychology at Columbia University Irving Medical Center. They might also send the patient for blood tests, an MRI, a CT scan, and in many cases, a spinal tap to look for proteins that follow specific types of dementia. A neuropsychological evaluation (in which the patient is asked to perform tasks such as drawing particular shapes and remembering details from a story theyre told) likewise assists limit the diagnosis.In the best-case situation, the outcomes may reveal that there is a reversible cause of the dementia symptoms, such as a vitamin deficiency, side impacts from medications, sleep apnea, or a thyroid condition– though Dr. Scharre points out that a reversible medical diagnosis is most likely when the patient is younger than 65. Even with non-reversible, degenerative forms of dementia, there is factor for hope: “We are finding out a lot about Alzheimers and all kinds of dementia,” states Edelmayer. “There is a great deal of remarkable research happening with brand-new diagnostic tests, early detection, future treatments– even possible preventative techniques.” Ahead, professionals break down 8 different types of dementia and the symptoms theyre connected with.1. Alzheimers diseaseWhat it is: The most common cause of dementia, Alzheimers impacts an estimated 60 to 80% of all individuals with dementia. The disease, which is believed to be triggered by plaques and tangles that form in the brain, ruining both the brain cells and the connections in between them, can begin developing years prior to any signs appear. A lot of people with Alzheimers start experiencing symptoms in their 60s or 70s and even later on, however in about 5% of cases, signs may start appearing at a more youthful age. One trademark of Alzheimers is a constant progression of symptoms over a number of years, says Caccappolo.Symptoms: As Dr. Scharre says, Alzheimers is about “memory, memory, memory.” In the early phases of Alzheimers, called moderate cognitive disability, individuals will experience lapse of memory, theyll duplicate things often times, frequently in the same conversation, and be not able to keep new details. They may likewise get confused attempting to perform easy tasks, or lost strolling or driving in a familiar location. As the illness progresses, they might end up being baffled about time of day, have difficulty following a discussion, and forget the names of friends and family members. Ultimately they will lose the ability to speak, stroll, and consume on their own.For more information: Alzheimers Association 2. Vascular dementiaWhat it is: Vascular dementia is considered the 2nd most typical kind of dementia, accounting for about 15 to 20% of cases in North America and Europe (the numbers are a little greater in Asia). Vascular dementia takes place when blood circulation to part of the brain is obstructed off, denying the neurons of oxygen and damaging or ultimately eliminating off those cells. This typically happens after a major stroke or a series of little strokes (referred to as transient ischemic attacks, or TIAs), or it can be due to a brain hemorrhage or the constricting of blood vessels due to high blood diabetes, atherosclerosis, or pressure (when arteries get blocked with fat, cholesterol, and other substances). People over the age of 65 are most typically impacted, and threat increases with age. It prevails to have a mix of Alzheimers and vascular dementia, says Edelmayer.Symptoms: The symptoms differ depending on the seriousness of the stroke and the part of the brain that has been affected. Early symptoms can include problems with language, failure to take note, improper psychological outbursts, and bad preparation and judgment. Later signs can consist of memory loss, confusion, impaired motor abilities, depression, loss of bladder control, and even hallucinations. A significant hallmark of vascular dementia is that instead of the constant progression of Alzheimers, signs might appear unexpectedly, in a “step-by-step” progression, states Caccappolo, with each TIA, causing a start of new signs that can then stabilize for a time, getting worse after the next vascular event.For more details: American Stroke Association 3. Lewy body dementiaWhat it is: Lewy body dementia (LBD) impacts about 1.4 million Americans, most over age 50. Lots of people first heard of the disease when it was found that Robin Williams struggled with undiagnosed LBD prior to his death. In this type of dementia, a protein called alpha-synuclein types clumps called Lewy bodies, which build up in nerve cells in the location of the brain accountable for memory, motor control, and thinking. LBD is related to Parkinsons illness, in which the alpha-synuclein proteins develop up initially in the part of the brain that manages movement and may spread out over time to the areas accountable for memory and cognition.Symptoms: Symptoms may depend upon where in the brain the Lewy bodies form. Among the hallmarks of Lewy body dementia is visual hallucinations and misconceptions: People may report seeing things that arent there. They might also act out their dreams. The illness also hinders memory, the ability to plan activities and process alertness, attention, and info. As LBD advances, the client may likewise struggle with the physical signs of Parkinsons, consisting of stiff muscles, tremblings, and trouble walking. Moods and awareness vary widely, says Caccappolo. “There can be truly excellent days and truly bad days,” she says. “Some days the person may seem almost like back to typical, other times theyre really out of it. The modifications can be daily and even alter within a day.” For more info: Lewy Body Dementia Association 4. Frontotemporal dementiaWhat it is: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is less typical, affecting 60,000 Americans per year– nevertheless, it is the most common kind of dementia for individuals under age 60, according to the Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration. There are several different types of dementia that fall under the category of frontotemporal (FTD), however what they all share in typical is that various proteins assault the brains frontal and temporal lobes, which are accountable for habits, language, and motor function.Symptoms: Because FTD starts in the frontal lobe, which is accountable for state of mind and behavior, the individual frequently becomes aggressive or apathetic, displays a lack of empathy, may utilize unsuitable language, and even act out sexually. Because of this, FTD is frequently mistaken for a psychiatric condition, states Caccappolo. “The clients partner may be available in and state they think theyre bipolar or depressed,” she describes. “It can be very hard on the caretaker.”
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